【文字列基本処理】


  連結

  

ビリオド "." で連結します
  

  • print "ABC" . "DEF";

  • $a = "ABC";
  • $a .= "DEF";
  • print $a;


  •   比較

    eq同値性 ( == は数値の同値性 )
    ltless than"a" lt "b""b" より "a" が小さい
    gtgreater than"b" gt "a""a" より "b" が大きい
    leless than or equal
    gegreater than or equal

      検索

    単純な文字列検索
      
    
    if ( "this is a pen." =~ /is/ ) {
    	print "HIT!";
    }
    
    $target = "this is a pen.";
    if ( $target  =~ /is/ ) {
    	print "HIT!";
    }
    
      

    変数を使った文字列検索
      
    
    $target = "is";
    if ( "this is a pen." =~ /$target/ ) {
    	print "HIT!";
    }
    
      

    $_ を使用した場合
      
    
    $_ = "this is a pen.";
    $target = "is";
    if ( /$target/ ) {
    	print "HIT!";
    }
    
      

    一致した位置
      
    
    $_ = "this is a pen.";
    $target = "is";
    if ( /$target/ ) {
    	print length($`);
    }
    
    または
    
    print index( $_, $target );
    
    検索の開始位置を省略した index 関数は、-1 を返すので 文字列検索の条件としても使用できる
    
      

      部分文字列

      
    
    # **************************************
    # 部分文字列の取り出し
    # **************************************
    $target = "this is a pen.";
    print substr( $target, 5, 2 );
    
      

      
    
    # **************************************
    # 文字列の部分に文字列を代入 ( 文字列置換 )
    # **************************************
    substr( $target, 5, 2 ) = "was";
    print $target;
    
      

      配列(またはリスト)と文字列分割

      
    
    @str = split( /,i/, "this,is,a,pen." );
    foreach( @str ) {
    	print "$_ ";
    }
    
      
    this s,a,pen.

      
    
    @str = split( /[,i]/, "this,is,a,pen." );
    foreach( @str ) {
    	print "$_ ";
    }
    
      
    th s s a pen.

      
    
    @str = split( /,/, "this,is,a,pen." );
    foreach( @str ) {
    	print "$_ ";
    }
    
      
    this is a pen.

      
    
    ($this,$is,$str,$pen) = split( /,/, "this,is,a,pen." );
    print $str;
    
      
    a

      配列(またはリスト)と文字列結合

      
    
    @str = ("this", "is", "a", "pen." );
    $bun = join( "/", @str );
    print $bun;
    
      
    this/is/a/pen.

      
    
    $bun = join( " ", ( "this", "is", "a", "pen." ) );
    print $bun;
    
      
    this is a pen.

      置換

    単純な文字列置換
      
    
    $target = ""this is a pen. that is a pen too.";
    $target =~ s/ is/ was/g;
    print $target;
    
      
    this was a pen. that was a pen too.

      その他


  • chop
  • chop(LIST)
  • chop(VARIABLE)
  • chop VARIABLE

  • 文字列の最後の文字を落としてその文字列を返す。
  • 入力文字列から最後の改行文字を除くのに使うと有効。
  • 文字列を省略した場合、$_ を使う






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